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- Лактазная недостаточность (отличная статья)
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- Статистика по лактазной недостаточности
Generic Name: pentosan polysulfate sodium Dosage Form: capsule, gelatin coated. Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Sep 1, Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a semi-synthetically produced heparin-like macromolecular carbohydrate derivative, which chemically and structurally resembles glycosaminoglycans.
It has a molecular weight of to Dalton with the following structural formula:. It is formulated for oral use. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is a low molecular weight heparin-like compound.
It has anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effects. The mechanism of action of pentosan polysulfate sodium in interstitial cystitis is not known.
In a clinical pharmacology study in which healthy female volunteers received a single oral or mg dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium containing radiolabeled drug as a solution under fasted conditions, maximal levels of plasma radioactivity were seen approximately at a median of 2 hours range 0.
Preclinical studies with parenterally administered radiolabeled pentosan polysulfate sodium showed distribution to the uroepithelium of the genitourinary tract with lesser amounts found in the liver, spleen, lung, skin, periosteum, and bone marrow. Erythrocyte penetration is low in animals. The fraction of pentosan polysulfate sodium that is absorbed is metabolized by partial desulfation in the liver and spleen, and by partial depolymerization in the kidney to a large number of metabolites.
Both the desulfation and depolymerization can be saturated with continued dosing. Following administration of an oral solution of a or mg dose of pentosan polysulfate sodium containing radiolabeled drug to groups of healthy subjects, plasma radioactivity declined with mean half-lives of 27 and 20 hours, respectively.
Only a small fraction of the administered dose mean 0. The pharmacokinetics of pentosan polysulfate sodium has not been studied in geriatric patients or in patients with hepatic or renal impairment.
Лактазная недостаточность (отличная статья)
In a study in which healthy subjects received pentosan polysulfate sodium mg capsule or placebo every 8 hours for 7 days, and were titrated with warfarin to an INR of 1. The mechanism by which pentosan polysulfate sodium achieves its effects in patients is unknown. In preliminary clinical models, pentosan polysulfate sodium adhered to the bladder wall mucosal membrane. The drug may act as a buffer to control cell permeability preventing irritating solutes in the urine from reaching the cells.
All patients met the NIH definition of IC based upon the results of cystoscopy, cytology, and biopsy. One blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated patients women, 5 men, 1 unknown with a mean age of 44 years range 18 to Of the patients, were women, were men, and 25 were of unknown sex. After 6 months, the percent of patients who reported the first onset of pain relief was less than 1.
A similar product that was given subcutaneously, sublingually, or intramuscularly and not initially metabolized by the liver is associated with delayed immunoallergic thrombocytopenia with symptoms of thrombosis and hemorrhage.
Alopecia is associated with pentosan polysulfate and with heparin products. These abnormalities are usually transient, may remain essentially unchanged, or may rarely progress with continued use. Patients should take the drug as prescribed, in the dosage prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed.
This effect may increase bleeding times. Pentosan polysulfate sodium did not affect prothrombin time PT or partial thromboplastin time PTT up to mg per day in 24 healthy male subjects treated for 8 days. Pentosan polysulfate sodium also inhibits the generation of factor Xa in plasma and inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma ex vivo.
Elmiron - Clinical Pharmacology
The results of these studies in rodents showed no clear evidence of drug-related tumorigenesis or carcinogenic risk. Pentosan polysulfate sodium was not clastogenic or mutagenic when tested in the mouse micronucleus test or the Ames test S. The effect of pentosan polysulfate sodium on spermatogenesis has not been investigated. These doses are 0.
Adequate and well-controlled studies have not been performed in pregnant women. Because animal studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used in pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.
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Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years have not been established. Of the patients, patients were in a 3-month trial and the remaining patients were in a long-term, unblinded trial.
The deaths appear to be related to other concurrent illnesses or procedures, except in one patient for whom the cause was not known. Two patients had severe abdominal pain or diarrhea and dehydration that required hospitalization. Digestive: Vomiting, mouth ulcer, colitis, esophagitis, gastritis, flatulence, constipation, anorexia, gum hemorrhage.
Hematologic: Anemia, ecchymosis, increased prothrombin time, increased partial thromboplastin time, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia. Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, tinnitus, optic neuritis, amblyopia, retinal hemorrhage. The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of pentosan polysulfate sodium; because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: weight gain and edema.
The severity of the events was described as "mild" in most patients. At a daily dose of mg, a dose higher than the approved dose, elevated liver function tests were reported as an adverse event in Overdose has not been reported. Based upon the pharmacodynamics of the drug, toxicity is likely to be reflected as anticoagulation, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, liver function abnormalities, and gastric distress.
In the event of acute overdosage, the patient should be given gastric lavage if possible, carefully observed and given symptomatic and supportive treatment.
The capsules should be taken with water at least 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after meals. The clinical value and risks of continued treatment in patients whose pain has not improved by 6 months is not known. Supplied in bottles of capsules.
Anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin sodium, heparin, high doses of aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen until you speak with your doctor. The most common side effects are hair loss, diarrhea, nausea, blood in the stool, headache, rash, upset stomach, abnormal liver function tests, dizziness and bruising.
Лактозная недостаточность у взрослых лечение
Call your doctor if these side effects persist or are bothersome or if there is blood in your stool. If you suspect that someone may have taken more than the prescribed dose of this medicine, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. This medication was prescribed for your particular condition. Do not use it for another condition or give the drug to others.
Как сделать детский коктейль дома
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We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here. Skip to Content. View All. Call your doctor if you will be undergoing surgery or will begin taking anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin sodium, heparin, high doses of aspirin, or anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen.
Drug Status Rx. Availability Prescription only.
Approval History FDA approved Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drug Class. Miscellaneous genitourinary tract agents. Related Drugs. Elmiron Images. Subscribe to our newsletters. FDA alerts for all medications.
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Статистика по лактазной недостаточности
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